The ketogenic diet is a low carbohydrate eating pattern with main sources of calories obtained from protein and fat.1 The goal of consuming large amounts of fat is entering a state of ketosis. Under these conditions, the body will burn fat as its main energy source. 2 This diet can be an option for people with type 2 diabetes, due to the high consumption of fat and low carbohydrates that has the potential to change how the body stores and uses energy. The ketogenic diet could improve blood glucose levels while reducing the need for insulin.3 Currently, the ketogenic diet is often used by many people to lose weight. However, you must be careful when following this diet because it could have a negative impact on your health, so you should do it on the right way.3

How to Follow the Keto Diet

There are several variations of the ketogenic diet, such as:

1. The standard ketogenic diet

It is a diet with very low in carbohydrates, moderate in protein, and high in fat. Generally contains 70% fat, 20% protein, and only 10% carbohydrates.

2. Cyclical ketogenic diet

Involving a higher carb reintroduction period, such as 5 days of a ketogenic diet followed by 2 days of a high carb diet.

3.Ketogenic diet with a target

This diet allows a person to increase the consumption of carbohydrates while exercising.

4. High-protein ketogenic diet

Similar to the standard ketogenic diet, but contains more protein. In general, the composition ratio is 60% fat, 35% protein, and 5% carbohydrates.

The cyclical or target ketogenic diet is a method often used by bodybuilders or athletes. However, only the standard and high-protein ketogenic diet that many people often applied.

The keto diet is recommended for a limited period of time, from 2-3 weeks to a maximum of 6-12 months. After undergoing the keto diet, it is advisable to adopt a healthy lifestyle, avoiding the risks of health problems that may arise if the keto diet is carried out for a long time.

Healthy foods and contain unsaturated fats could be consumed on the ketogenic diet, such as: 2,3

1. Eggs

2. fish e.g salmon

3. Cheese

4. Avocado

5. Olives and olive oil

6. Nuts and seeds

7. Green vegetables, tomatoes, onions, chilies, and other vegetables that are low in carbohydrates

Side effects of Keto Diet

Some of the side effects that may occur as a result of going on a keto diet include: 5

> Lack of energy.

> Poor mental function.

> Easily hungry.

> Sleep disturbance.

> Digestive discomfort.

> Decreased physical performance.

These side effects are temporary and could subside on their own over time. However, if you applied the keto diet in the long term, be aware of the negative effects that may arise, such as:5

> Low protein in the blood.

> Excessive fat in the liver.

> Kidney stones.

> Micronutrient deficiency.

In order to avoid the side effects and risks above, you could go on a low-carb diet regularly for the first few weeks. Through this way, your body will get used to burning more fat before eliminating completely carbohydrates from your diet. Besides that, the keto diet could also change the balance of minerals and water in the body, so it is advisable to add salt on your food or take mineral supplements.5 Consult with a health professional for your body's nutritional needs before you follow this diet pattern.


  1. Nourish by WebMD Staff. What’s a Ketogenic Diet?. Last reviewed: 21 April 2021. Available at :
  2. Alodokter Staff. Diet Keto: Ketahui Manfaat, Cara Menjalani, dan Risikonya. Last reviewed: 7 August 2022. Available at:
  3. Heallthline Staff. How the Ketogenic Diet Works for Type 2 Diabetes. Last reviewed: 30 April 2020. Available at :
  4. Halodoc Staff. Intip 5 Tips Diet Keto Bagi Pemula. Last reviewed: 05 July 2019. Available at:
  5. Heathline Staff. The Ketogenic Diet: A Detailed Beginner’s Guide to Ket. Last reviewed : 22 October 2023. Available at:


Image source: