Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is spread through any type of sexual intercourse, including anal, vaginal, and oral penetration. Syphilis can also spread through the use of contaminated needles in addition to sexual contact 1

Treponema pallidum is the bacteria that causes syphilis. Since the germs can't survive long in the air, it can't be spread through shared objects like cutlery or clothing, toilets, swimming pools, or restrooms. 2

To stop the spread and transmission of this disease, it is important to be aware of the various syphilis signs. According to the syphilis stage, specific symptoms will manifest, such as:2,3

1. 2-4 weeks after infection, signs of primary syphilis might develop. Found indications include tiny wounds on the genitalia, mouth, or anus where germs can enter. Because there is no pain in the wound area, sufferers sometimes are ignorant of the infection process that is taking place, but there is still a risk of spreading it to partners. After 1-2 months, wounds can close on their own.

2. A rash that can arise anywhere on the body, particularly on the palms of the hands and feet, signals the presence of secondary syphilis a few weeks after the sores have healed. Aside from these, people may also have fatigue, headaches, swollen lymph nodes, joint discomfort, and fever. Other complaints include appetite loss, weight loss, hair loss, and fever. This period lasts for one to three months, or even up to a whole year. The infection must be stopped at this point in order for it to not spread.

3. Despite the absence of symptoms, latent syphilis can still spread during the first 12 months. The illness will advance to the tertiary stage if untreated.

4. Many years after the body contracts the disease for the first time, secondary syphilis may develop. This stage is regarded as the most serious since it can affect many important organs and lead to death or paralysis, brain damage, inflammation of the brain and spinal cord lining, blindness, effects on the heart, bones, joints, and liver, and enlargement of blood vessels.

The number of syphilis or lion king cases has climbed by 70% during the past five years, according to the Indonesian Ministry of Health (Kemenkes). Syphilis is transmitted from the mother to her offspring at a rate of 69 to 80%, which is fairly high. There is a chance that a pregnant mother with syphilis will infect her unborn child. Congenital syphilis or congenital syphilis is the name for this kind of syphilis.4

Congenital syphilis can result in miscarriage or infant mortality. Babies who are still alive may develop complications such as hearing loss, liver and spleen swelling, anomalies in the nose bridge and other sections of the bones, and brain issues.3

What can be done to prevent syphilis and how to avoid it:3

1. Refrain from using illegal drugs and alcohol.

2. Have consistent and consistent sexual partners.

3. Put a lengthy halt to sexual activity.

4. Be honest with your spouse about any prior cases of venereal disease.

5. If you must have sex with someone you don't know, make it a practice to use a condom.


  1. - Perdoski Team. Waspadai Bahaya Sifilis, IMS Ini Dapat Menyebabkan Kematian. Last reviewed: February 19, 2018. Avaliable at:
  2. - Hanny Nilasari, SpKK (K). Sifilis. Last reviewed: Agustus 09, 2022. Avaliable at:
  3. Rizal Fadli. Sifilis. Last reviewed: July 12, 2022. Avaliable at:
  4. - Atrid Prihatini WD. Last reviewed : May 11, 2023. Avaliable at :


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