Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus which is transmitted through the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This mosquito usually attacks in the morning and evening. In appearance, this mosquito is quite easy to recognize by its black and white striped color and its small physical characteristics. They don't like to inhabit dirty places, but instead target clean places with stagnant water, such as the bathtub, animal drink container. Dengue fever commonly occurs in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, especially during the humid rainy season.1,2,3

Based on data from the Ministry of Health (Kemenkes), there were 1,236 cases of death due to DHF in Indonesia in 2022. This number increase for 75.32% compared to the previous year, which had 705 cases of death. As many as 63% of these death cases are dominated by children aged 0-14 years. Meanwhile, until the 19th week of 2023, the number of DHF cases in Indonesia reached 31,380 cases with 246 of them being declared dead. This condition certainly needs to be watched out for, especially for children, who are one of the risk groups. So, it is necessary to prevent this disease from spreading to many people.4

Symptoms of DHF

The main symptoms of DHF are sudden high fever that can reach a temperature of 39-40oC and commonly lasts for 3 days, accompanied by headaches, pain in the eyes, muscles, and joints, skin rashes, nausea and vomiting. In the next phase, the fever will decrease, but the number of platelets in the blood will decrease greatly. As a result, patients may experience shock due to loss of large amounts of fluid, and bleeding such as nosebleeds,  bleeding gums, blood vomiting, and black defecation. Thus, when the patient's body temperature drops, monitoring must be carried out closely, because it is a critical and dangerous phase.1,2,3

Dengue treatment

If you experience symptoms of DHF, immediately consult a medical professional to get the right diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. Treatment of DHF usually involves supportive care, such as adequate rest, adequate fluid intake, consume nutritious food, and medication to reduce symptoms such as fever and pain. .1,2,3

Dengue Prevention

Prevention of dengue fever can be done by eradicating mosquito nests. Below are things that could be done, such as:1,3

- Drain and clean the surrounding environment from stagnant water which can become a breeding ground for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

- Tightly closing the water reservoir

- Doing fogging or repairs the water channels

- Use air conditioning or mosquito nets while sleeping to protect yourself from mosquito bites

- Use mosquito repellent lotions or creams that contain diethyltoluamide (DEET) when in mosquito-prone areas

- Wear clothes that completely cover the body, especially when outside at times that are prone to mosquito bites

- Avoiding activities outside the home at times that are prone to mosquito bites, such as at dusk or early in the morning

Reference:

  1. 1. Meva Nareza. Dengue fever. HealthReplies.com Last reviewed May 30, 2023. Available at: https://www.alodokter.com/demam-berdarah
  2. 2. Kurniyanto, SpPD.Danger of Radiation and How to Protect Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment. siloamhospitals. Last reviewed: June 06, 2023. Available at: https://www.siloamhospitals.com/en/formasi-siloam/artikel/demam-berdarah-dbd
  3. 3. Rizal Fadli.Dengue fever. Halodoc. Last reviewed: 13 June2023. Available at: https://www.halodoc.com/kesehatan/demam-berdarah
  4. 4. Ifa Mufida.Beware of Dengue Fever, Cases Continue to Increase. Malang State University. Last reviewed: 07August 2023. Available at: https://um.ac.id/berita/waspada-demam-berdarah-Jadinya-terus-meningkat/