Air pollution is a condition where the air is polluted by harmful substances that could impact human health and the environment. We unknowingly breathe in harmful air pollution when we travel daily.

Some of the airborne particles that we breathe include particulate matter (PM) 10 and PM 2.5. Particulate matter is a term used to describe the mixture of solid and liquid airborne particles.  For PM 2.5, is an extremely small airborne particle about 2.5 microns (micrometers), that could formed from exhaustion of power plants, industry and motor vehicle emission. For PM 10 refers to airborne particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller, that could be found in dust and smoke. A good level of air quality for PM 2.5, is defined by BMKG as 0-15µgram/m3. Meanwhile for PM 10, based on the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), a good level is less than 40 µgram/m3.1

On a global scale, the second-worst city for air quality is Jakarta. According to IQAir data, Jakarta's air quality has obtained a score of 159. Furthermore, based on the World Health Organization's (WHO) air quality criteria guidelines that issued annually, the concentration of particles in Jakarta's atmosphere has increased 14.2 times.2

In contrast to big cities where motor vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution, other sources of pollution could come from coal-fired power stations, forest fires, and peatland degradation.1 According, the World Health Organization (WHO), air pollution negatively impacts human's health. Several negative implications of poor air quality on health, such as:2

> Respiratory system disorders, including asthma, emphysema, respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, chronic bronchitis.

> Cardiovascular disorders with possible increased formation of plaque in the arteries, which can lead to coronary artery disease.

> Fetal and pregnancy problems which could cause low birth weight, emotional and cognitive disorders at adolescence and might cause autism.

> Neurodegenerative issues associated with an increased risk of dementias such as Alzheimer and Parkinson.

> Cancer, not only lung cancer, poor air quality also increases the risk of other cancers, such as breast cancer.

There are several efforts that could be made to reduce the health risk of air pollution, including:3

> Checking the air quality in each area.

> Avoide polluted areas.

> Do air cleaning in the room.

> Increase green plants.

> Regulating good air circulation.

> Using public transportation.

>Maintain a healthy lifestyle.

> Use a mask when in high levels of air pollution area.


1. Dwi Latifatul Fajri. Mengenal PM 2.5 dan PM 10, Partikel Berbahaya bagi Tubuh. Last reviewed : September 27, 2021. Avaliable at:

2. Rizal Fadli. Kualitas Udara Jakarta Memburuk, Ini Dampaknya untuk Kesehatan. Last reviewed :June 22, 2022. Avaliable at

3. Dinkes Team. Cara menjaga kesehatan dari polusi udara. Last reviewed : June 9, 2023. Avaliable at :


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