Based on data from the 2018 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) in Indonesia, the incidence of heart disease is increasing every year with 15 out of 1,000 Indonesians suffering from heart diseases such as coronary heart disease or ischemic heart.1
Heart conditions such as coronary artery disease are frequent. The coronary arteries, the main blood channels feeding the heart, struggle to supply the heart muscle with enough blood, oxygen, and nutrients. 2 Cholesterol, a waxy substance that accumulates inside the lining of the coronary arteries to create plaque, is a common contributor to coronary artery disease. This deposit has the potential to obstruct blood flow completely or partially in the heart's major arteries. 3 A blood clot may form if an atheroma fragment fragments off. By obstructing your coronary artery, this clot can prevent your heart muscle from receiving blood and oxygen. Heart attack is the term used for this. 4
All of us will be affected by heart and circulation disease in some way, although many people are unaware of the facts. Here are common myths among the public about heart disease.
1. Heart attack and cardiac arrest are the same thing.
In fact, a heart attack is not the same as a cardiac arrest.
Heart attacks are related to circulation problems, which occur when one of the coronary arteries becomes blocked so that the heart muscle does not get enough oxygenated blood. In this condition, the patient may still be conscious and need immediate help.5,7
2. Chest pain is the only warning sign of a heart attack.
Chest pain (angina) in the middle or left of the chest is a sign of a heart attack and is common. However, these symptoms are not the only signs and can be different for each person even with the same type of heart disease so that sufferers often go unnoticed.3 Symptoms such as pain or discomfort in the back, neck, jaw or in one or both arms, dizziness, shortness of breath and even nausea can be experienced by sufferers. Take these symptoms seriously and seek medical help immediately.6
3. Heart disease runs in families, so nothing can be done to stop it.
If a close family member has had heart disease, it could mean you have an increased risk. However, there are ways to reduce risk, even for people with genetic susceptibility. A healthy lifestyle can be recognized to help overcome risk factors, such as moderate exercise several times a week (special exercise for heart disease), consumption of healthy foods low in fat and cholesterol, maintaining ideal body weight, quitting smoking, and drinking alcohol, maintaining blood sugar levels, avoid stress and get enough sleep.2,4,6,7
4. Taking statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs can cause damaging side effects. In addition, if you are already taking statins, then you are free to eat whatever food you like.
In fact, studies show that statins can reduce the risk of dying from a heart attack or stroke. However, like all drugs, statins also have potential side effects, the most common of which are muscle aches and other aches. If you are given a statin by a doctor, you must take it and it is beneficial if taken long-term according to the doctor's recommendations.5
When it comes to diet, statins can only rule out the unwanted effects of a poor diet, but an unhealthy diet can increase other independent risk factors for heart disease, such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes.7
Examination procedures and actions that your doctor may suggest, including an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, chest X-ray, coronary angiogram, and cardiac catheterization. The following are drugs that can help control symptoms according to your doctor's recommendations, including Beta Blockers, Acetylsalicylic Acid, Calcium channel blockers, Statins, Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), nitroglycerin.2,4
1. Mohammad Farhan Zhuhri. Menko PMK: Prevalensi Penyakit Jantung Terus Meningkat. Media Indonesia, Sunday, 13rd June 2021, 14:10 WIB. Available at:
2. Mayo Clinic Staff. Coronary Artery Disease. Mayo Clinics.com. Available at:
3. NIH Staff. Coronary Artery Disease. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Updated on 24 March 2022. Available at:
4. British Heart Foundation. Coronary Heart Disease. Last reviewed on October 2021. Available at:
5. British Heart Foundation. 7 mitos yang sering didengar dari penyakit jantung. Available at:
6. Cardiology Associates of Savannah. Ilmu Pengetahuan tentang Jantung. Fakta dan Mitos Tentang Penyakit Jantung. Available at:
7. Tim Newman. Medical News Today. Reviewed on 15th February 2021. Available at: